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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Editorial Process:

Peer Review

Submissions are assessed by the Editorial Board and are subject to external peer review using the single blind method whereby the authors are blinded to the identity of the reviewers and editors. The journal returns a decision on a peer-reviewed paper in 20 days. All decisions made by an Editor-in-Chief of either journal are final.

Your Article

Structure, ensure the submission is structured as requested by the journal, and contains all relevant sections

Title page, all submissions must have a title page stating all of the relevant information

All submissions should follow the journal guidelines for word count, page margins and line numbering.

Non-native English speakers are encouraged to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission. This is particular key for revised submissions. 

Data accuracy is crucial. Authors are strongly encouraged to double check all reported data for accuracy and to confirm that all units of measurement are correct and consistent.

Please see ‘References’ of the journal’s required style.

All figures and tables should be presented in a clear and informative manner with accompanying legends.

All articles are required to meet the requirements outlined in our ethical policy

Before Submitting

Approval ensure all authors have seen and approved the final version of the article prior to submission. All authors must also approve the journal you are submitting to.

Open Access, the appropriate Open Access option must be selected on submission. Authors are responsible for ensuring any funder mandates are followed.

Uploading your submission

All authors must be listed on the title page 

The cover letter should introduce your paper and outline why your work is important and suitable publication at this time.

Ensure all files are in the correct format for revised submissions.  Ensure all figures and table files are present and correct, and that they display clearly.


The article should:

Be concise and clear.

Be limited to 5000 words for Research article submissions. 

Display the word count on the title page.

Contain no more than 10 figures and 10-30 references as recommended by the journal.

Use double line spacing throughout (including reference list and figure legends) and contain continuous line numbering down the left-side of each page.

Define all abbreviations when first mentioned.

Be submitted in the correct file type, ie. main document in an editable Word format.

Be written in either UK or US English Times New Roman font

Contain a title page.

All research article submissions should be formatted in the following sections: 

  1. Title Page

Include a separate title page with:

  • Title (maximum 85 characters)
  • All authors names and full addresses
  • Corresponding author’s postal and email address
  • A short title (maximum 46 characters, including spaces)
  • A minimum of four keywords describing the manuscript
  • Word count of the full article, excluding references and figure legends
  1. Abstract

The abstract should be a single paragraph of not more than 250 words, clearly stating the objective of the study or review, the methods used (where applicable), and summarizing results and conclusions.  Avoid abbreviations and references in this section.

  1. Introduction

The introduction should set the study in context by briefly reviewing relevant knowledge of the subject; follow this with a concise statement of the objectives of the study.

  1. Materials and methods

Provide sufficient information for other workers to repeat the study. If well-established methods are used give a reference to the technique and provide full details of any modifications.

  1. Results

The results should read as a narrative leading the reader through the experiments and investigations performed. Referencing and mention of others studies is permitted in the Results section where necessary or helpful.

  1. Discussion 

Should not simply re-state results, but should put them in the broader context and highlight the importance and novelty of the work.

  1. Declaration of interest, Funding, and Acknowledgements

Declaration of interest

Actual or perceived conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared in full.


Please be as brief as possible.

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