Author Guidelines


The title should be simple, concise and informative with only the first word capitalized. A shortened version of the title consisting of a maximum of 100 characters (including spaces) for running headers should also be provided.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


The introduction should be clear and provide the issue to be discussed in the manuscript. Before the objective, authors should provide an adequate background, and very short literature survey in order to record the existing solutions, to show which is the best of previous researches, to show the main limitation of the previous researches, to show what do you hope to achieve (to solve the limitation), and to show the scientific merit or novelties of the paper
Containing backgrounds of the problem, depiction and further scrutiny of the problem or the gap between what is idealized and what is the reality, supported by relevant theories and recent research, and objective of the study. The problem should offer a new research value or benefit as an innovative endeavour, written more or less 20% of the whole body including the title and abstract



 This section must be written out briefly, concisely, clearly, but adequately so that it can be replicated. This section contains explanation of the research approach, subjects of the study, conducts of the research procedure, use of materials and instruments, data collection and analysis techniques. These are not theories. In the case of statistical uses, formulas that are generally known should not be written down. Any specific criteria used by the researcher in collecting and analyzing the research data should be completely described. This section should be written not more than 10% (for qualitative research) or 15% (for quantitative research) of the body.


The author needs to report the results in sufficient detail so that the reader can see which statistical analysis was conducted and why, and later to justify their conclusions.

Reporting results: The author may assume that the reader has a working  nowledge of basic statistics (i.e., typically the contents covered in a 1st statistics course).

Discussion should be clear and concise. The results should summarize (scientific) findings rather than providing data in great detail. Please highlight differences between your results or findings and the previous publications by other researchers.

 The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

In discussion, it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. Often should begin with a brief summary of the main scientific findings (not experimental results). The following components should be covered in discussion: How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section (what)? Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results or findings presented (why)? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported (what else)? Or are there any differences?


The discussion section should:

-           Restate the study’s main purpose

-           Reaffirm the importance of the study be restating its main contributions

-           Summarize the results in relation to each stated research objective or hypothesis without introducing new material

-           Relate the findings to the literature and the results reported by other researches

-           Provide possible explanations for unexpected or non-significant findings

-           Discuss the managerial implications of the study

-           Highlight the main limitations of the study that could influence its internal and external validity

-           Discuss insightful (i.e., non-obvious) directions or opportunities for future research on the topic

The discussion section should not merely restate the findings reported in the result section or report additional findings that have not been discussed earlier in the article. The focus should instead be on highlighting the broader implications of the study's findings and relating these back to previous research. Make sure that the conclusions you reach follow logically from and are substantiated by the evidence presented in your study (Varadarajan 1996: 5).



In this section, the author presents brief conclusions from the results of research with suggestions for advanced researchers or general readers. A conclusion may review the main points of the paper, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.

Not only does the author write down the major flaws and limitations of the study, which can reduce the validity of the writing, thus raising questions from the readers (whether, or in what way), the limits in his studies may have affected the results and conclusions. Limitations require critical judgment and interpretation of their impact. The author should provide the answer to the question: is this a problem with error, method, validity, and or otherwise?

Writing an academic article is a challenging but very fulfilling endeavor. Hopefully, the guidelines presented here will enable you to write your first academic article with relative ease. Students, however, often underestimate the time required to produce a “polished” first effort. You cannot write a proper research article in a weekend or even a week. It is, therefore, extremely important to allow yourself enough time –at least three to four weeks—to work on the successive draft.


Recognize those who helped in the research, especially funding supporter of your research. Include individuals who have assisted you in your study: Advisors, Financial supporters


Reference management software

Bibliography contains references that are used only in the writing of this article. For uniformity and Internationalization, writing Bibliography wearing article according to the way of writing citations APA style.


Try to avoid the use of footnotes.

Figures, diagrams & tables

Place diagrams, figures, tables and pictures should be centred and in correct location in your text. Each diagram, figure, table and picture are presented in 1 column format and should have a title using the following guide: Figure 1: Title (Gill Sans MT, 11 pt). The use grey scale images is preferred. When using labels within a diagram, figure, table and picture please ensure that labels have horizontal orientation.

Articles are written in accordance with the Manuscript Templates provided.