Parental Involvement and Mothers' Employment on Children's Independence During Covid-19 Pandemics
The pandemic that occurred this year created conditions that changed the activities of parents and children, the role of parents working outside the home often led to a lack of parental involvement in child development, especially the development of independence. The conditions of the Covid-19 pandemic have caused parents and children to be in one place at the same time. This study aims to determine the effect of parental involvement and maternal employment status on the independence of children aged 7-8 years in the Covid-19 pandemic situation. This quantitative research uses a comparative causal ex-post facto design, with groups of working mothers and groups of non-working mothers. The sample of each group was 60 people who were randomly selected. The findings of the study with the calculation of the two-way ANOVA test obtained the value of Fo = 4.616> F table = 3.92 or with p-value = 0.034 <α = 0.05, indicating that there is an interaction between parental involvement and maternal employment status on children's independence, and Based on the results of hypothesis testing, there is no effect of parental involvement and mother's work status on the independence of the child even though there are differences in the average results of children's independence.
Keywords: Children's Independence, Parental Involvement and Mothers' Employment
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