Factors Affecting Teacher Readiness for Online Learning (TROL) in Early Childhood Education: TISE and TPACK

  • Jhoni Warmansyah Institut Agama Islam Negeri Batusangkar
  • Elis Komalasari Institut Agama Islam Negeri Batusangkar
  • Eliza Febriani Institut Agama Islam Negeri Batusangkar
  • Gusmiati Institut Agama Islam Negeri Batusangkar
  • Amalina Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol

Abstract

This study aims to find empirical information about the effect of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), and Technology Integration Self Efficacy (TISE) on Teacher Readiness for Online Learning (TROL). This study uses a quantitative survey method with path analysis techniques. This study measures the readiness of kindergarten teachers in distance learning in Tanah Datar Regency, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia with a sampling technique using simple random sampling involving 105 teachers. Empirical findings reveal that; 1) there is a direct positive effect of Technology Integration Self Efficacy on Teacher Readiness for Online Learning; 2) there is a direct positive effect of PACK on Teacher Readiness for Online Learning; 3) there is a direct positive effect of Technology Integration Self Efficacy on TPACK. If want to improve teacher readiness for online learning, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) must be improved by paying attention to Technology Integration Self Efficacy (TISE).

Keywords: TROL, TPACK, TISE, Early Childhood Education

References:

Abbitt, J. T. (2011). An Investigation of the Relationship between Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Technology Integration and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) among Preservice Teachers. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 27(4), 134–143.

Adedoyin, O. B., & Soykan, E. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: The challenges and opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180

Adnan, M. (2020). Online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Students perspectives. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 1(2), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.33902/JPSP.2020261309

Alqurashi, E. (2016). Self-Efficacy in Online Learning Environments: A Literature Review. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (CIER), 9(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.19030/cier.v9i1.9549

Amir, H. (2016). Korelasi Pengaruh Faktor Efikasi Diri Dan Manajemen Diri Terhadap Motivasi Berprestasi Pada Mahasiswa Pendidikan Kimia Unversitas Bengkulu. Manajer Pendidikan, 10(4).

Anderson, T. (2008). The theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca University Press.

Anggraeni, N., Ridlo, S., & Setiati, N. (2018). The Relationship Between TISE and TPACK among Prospective Biology Teachers of UNNES. Journal of Biology Education, 7(3), 305–311. https://doi.org/10.15294/jbe.v7i3.26021

Ariani, D. N. (2015). Hubungan antara Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge dengan Technology Integration Self Efficacy Guru Matematika di Sekolah Dasar. Muallimuna: Jurnal Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, 1(1), 79–91.

Birisci, S., & Kul, E. (2019). Predictors of Technology Integration Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Preservice Teachers. Contemporary Educational Technology, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.30935/cet.512537

Bozkurt, A., Jung, I., Xiao, J., Vladimirschi, V., Schuwer, R., Egorov, G., Lambert, S. R., Al-freih, M., Pete, J., Olcott, D., Rodes, V., Aranciaga, I., Bali, M., Alvarez, A. V, Roberts, J., Pazurek, A., Raffaghelli, J. E., Panagiotou, N., Coëtlogon, P. De, … Paskevicius, M. (2020). UVicSPACE: Research & Learning Repository Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 1–126.

Brinkley-Etzkorn, K. E. (2018). Learning to teach online: Measuring the influence of faculty development training on teaching effectiveness through a TPACK lens. The Internet and Higher Education, 38, 28–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2018.04.004

Butnaru, G. I., Niță, V., Anichiti, A., & Brînză, G. (2021). The effectiveness of online education during covid 19 pandemic—A comparative analysis between the perceptions of academic students and high school students from romania. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095311

Carliner, S. (2003). Modeling information for three-dimensional space: Lessons learned from museum exhibit design. Technical Communication, 50(4), 554–570.

Cengiz, C. (2015). The development of TPACK, Technology Integrated Self-Efficacy and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations of pre-service physical education teachers. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 411–422. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2014.932332

Chou, P., & Ph, D. (2012). Effect of Students ’ Self -Directed Learning Abilities on Online Learning Outcomes: Two Exploratory Experiments in Electronic Engineering Department of Education. 2(6), 172–179.

Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Burton, R., Glowatz, M., Magni, P. A., & Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2020.3.1.7

Dolighan, T., & Owen, M. (2021). Teacher efficacy for online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Brock Education Journal, 30(1), 95. https://doi.org/10.26522/brocked.v30i1.851

Dong, Y., Chai, C. S., Sang, G.-Y., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C.-C. (2015). Exploring the Profiles and Interplays of Pre-service and In-service Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in China. International Forum of Educational Technology & Society, 18(1), 158–169.

Donitsa-Schmidt, S., & Ramot, R. (2020). Opportunities and challenges: Teacher education in Israel in the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 586–595. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2020.1799708

Elas, N. I. B., Majid, F. B. A., & Narasuman, S. A. (2019). Development of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) For English Teachers: The Validity and Reliability. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 14(20), 18. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v14i20.11456

Ghozali, I. (2011). Aplikasi multivariate dengan program IBM SPSS 19. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Giles, R. M., & Kent, A. M. (2016). An Investigation of Preservice Teachers ’ Self-Efficacy for Teaching with Technology. 1(1), 32–40. https://doi.org/10.20849/aes.v1i1.19

Gil-flores, J., & Rodríguez-santero, J. (2017). Computers in Human Behavior Factors that explain the use of ICT in secondary-education classrooms: The role of teacher characteristics and school infrastructure. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 441–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.11.057

Habibi, A., Yusop, F. D., & Razak, R. A. (2019). The role of TPACK in affecting pre-service language teachers’ ICT integration during teaching practices: Indonesian context. Education and Information Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-10040-2

Harris, J. B., & Hofer, M. J. (2011). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in Action. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(3), 211–229. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2011.10782570

Hatlevik, I. K. R., & Hatlevik, O. E. (2018). Examining the relationship between teachers’ ICT self-efficacy for educational purposes, collegial collaboration, lack of facilitation and the use of ICT in teaching practice. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(JUN), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00935

Hung, M. L. (2016). Teacher readiness for online learning: Scale development and teacher perceptions. Computers and Education, 94, 120–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.012

Hung, M. L., Chou, C., Chen, C. H., & Own, Z. Y. (2010). Learner readiness for online learning: Scale development and student perceptions. Computers and Education, 55(3), 1080–1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.004

Juanda, A., Shidiq, A. S., & Nasrudin, D. (2021). Teacher Learning Management: Investigating Biology Teachers’ TPACK to Conduct Learning During the Covid-19 Outbreak. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(1), 48–59. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v10i1.26499

Karatas, M. A.-K. (2020). COVID - 19 Pandemisinin Toplum Psikolojisine Etkileri ve Eğitime Yansımaları. Journal of Turkish Studies, Volume 15(Volume 15 Issue 4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44336

Kaymak, Z. D., & Horzum, M. B. (2013). Relationship between online learning readiness and structure and interaction of online learning students. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 13(3), 1792–1797. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2013.3.1580

Keser, H., Karaoğlan Yılmaz, F. G., & Yılmaz, R. (2015). TPACK Competencies and Technology Integration Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers. Elementary Education Online, 14(4), 1193–1207. https://doi.org/10.17051/io.2015.65067

Kim, J. (2020). Learning and Teaching Online During Covid-19: Experiences of Student Teachers in an Early Childhood Education Practicum. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52(2), 145–158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00272-6

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2013). What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)? Journal of Education, 193(3), 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/002205741319300303

Lee, Y., & Lee, J. (2014). Enhancing pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for technology integration through lesson planning practice. Computers and Education, 73, 121–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.01.001

Mallillin, L. L. D., Mendoza, L. C., Mallillin, J. B., Felix, R. C., & Lipayon, I. C. (2020). Implementation and Readiness of Online Learning Pedagogy: A Transition To Covid 19 Pandemic. European Journal of Open Education and E-Learning Studies, 5(2), 71–90. https://doi.org/10.46827/ejoe.v5i2.3321

Mishra, P. (2019). Considering Contextual Knowledge: The TPACK Diagram Gets an Upgrade. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 35(2), 76–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2019.1588611

Moorhouse, B. L. (2020). Adaptations to a face-to-face initial teacher education course ‘forced’ online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 609–611. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2020.1755205

Mulyadi, D., Wijayatingsih, T. D., Budiastuti, R. E., Ifadah, M., & Aimah, S. (2020). Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of ESP Teachers in Blended Learning Format. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(06), 124. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i06.11490

Murtaza, G., Mahmood, K., & Fatima, N. (2021). Readiness for Online Learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A survey of Pakistani LIS students The Journal of Academic Librarianship Readiness for Online Learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A survey of Pakistani LIS students. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 47(3), 102346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2021.102346

Mustika, M., & Sapriya. (2019). Kesiapan Guru IPS dalam E-learning Berdasarkan: Survei melalui Pendekatan TPACK. 32–35. https://doi.org/10.1145/3306500.3306566

Niess, M. L. (2011). Investigating TPACK: Knowledge Growth in Teaching with Technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(3), 299–317. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.44.3.c

Oketch, & Otchieng, H. (2013). University of Nairobi, H. A. (2013). E-Learning Readiness Assessment Model in Kenyas’ Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study of University of Nairobi by: Oketch, Hada Achieng a Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of M. October.

Pamuk, S., Ergun, M., Cakir, R., Yilmaz, H. B., & Ayas, C. (2015). Exploring relationships among TPACK components and development of the TPACK instrument. Education and Information Technologies, 20(2), 241–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-013-9278-4

Paraskeva, F., Bouta, H., & Papagianni, A. (2008). Individual characteristics and computer self-efficacy in secondary education teachers to integrate technology in educational practice. Computers and Education, 50(3), 1084–1091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2006.10.006

Putro, S. T., Widyastuti, M., & Hastuti, H. (2020). Problematika Pembelajaran di Era Pandemi COVID-19 Stud Kasus: Indonesia, Filipina, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Finlandia, dan Jerman. Geomedia Majalah Ilmiah Dan Informasi Kegeografian, 18(2), 50–64.

Qudsiya, R., Widiyaningrum, P., & Setiati, N. (2018). The Relationship Between TISE and TPACK among Prospective Biology Teachers of UNNES. Journal of Biology Education, 7(3), 305–311. https://doi.org/10.15294/jbe.v7i3.26021

Reflianto, & Syamsuar. (2018). Pendidikan dan Tantangan Pembelajaran Berbasis Teknologi Informasi di Era Revolusi Industri 4.0. Jurnal Ilmiah Teknologi Pendidikan, 6(2), 1–13.

Reski, A., & Sari, K. (2020). Analisis Kemampuan TPACK Guru Fisika Se-Distrik Merauke. Jurnla Kreatif Online, 8(1), 1–8.

Ruggiero, D., & Mong, C. J. (2015). The teacher technology integration experience: Practice and reflection in the classroom. Journal of Information Technology Education, 14.

Santika, V., Indriayu, M., & Sangka, K. B. (2021). Profil TPACK Guru Ekonomi di Indonesia sebagai Pendekatan Integrasi TIK selama Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Duconomics Sci-Meet (Education & Economics Science Meet), 1, 356–369. https://doi.org/10.37010/duconomics.v1.5470

Semiz, K., & Ince, M. L. (2012). Pre-service physical education teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge, technology integration self-efficacy and instructional technology outcome expectations. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(7). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.800

Senthilkumar, Sivapragasam, & Senthamaraikannan. (2014). Role of ICT in Teaching Biology. International Journal of Research, 1(9), 780–788.

Setiaji, B., & Dinata, P. A. C. (2020). Analisis kesiapan mahasiswa jurusan pendidikan fisika menggunakan e-learning dalam situasi pandemi Covid-19 Analysis of e-learning readiness on physics education students during Covid-19 pandemic. 6(1), 59–70.

Siagian, H. S., Ritonga, T., & Lubis, R. (2021). Analisis Kesiapan Belajar Daring Siswa Kelas Vii Pada Masa Pandemi Covid-19 Di Desa Simpang. JURNAL MathEdu (Mathematic Education Journal), 4(2), 194–201.

Sintawati, M., & Indriani, F. (2019). Pentingnya Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Guru di Era Revolusi Industri 4.0. Seminar Nasional Pagelaran Pendidikan Dasar Nasional (PPDN), 1(1), 417–422.

Sojanah, J., Suwatno, Kodri, & Machmud, A. (2021). Factors affecting teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge (A survey on economics teacher knowledge). Cakrawala Pendidikan, 40(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v40i1.31035

Subhan, M. (2020). Analisis Penerapan Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Pada Proses Pembelajaran Kurikulum 2013 di Kelas V. International Journal of Technology Vocational Education and Training, 1(2), 174–179.

Sum, T. A., & Taran, E. G. M. (2020). Kompetensi Pedagogik Guru PAUD dalam Perencanaan dan Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran. Jurnal Obsesi : Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 4(2), 543. https://doi.org/10.31004/obsesi.v4i2.287

Suryawati, E., Firdaus, L. N., & Yosua, H. (2014). Analisis keterampilan technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) guru biologi SMA negeri kota Pekanbaru. Jurnal Biogenesis, 11(1), 67-72.

Suyamto, J., Masykuri, M., & Sarwanto, S. (2020). Analisis Kemampuan Tpack (Technolgical, Pedagogical, and Content, Knowledge) Guru Biologi Sma Dalam Menyusun Perangkat Pembelajaran Materi Sistem Peredaran Darah. INKUIRI: Jurnal Pendidikan IPA, 9(1), 46. https://doi.org/10.20961/inkuiri.v9i1.41381

Tiara, D. R., & Pratiwi, E. (2020). Pentingnya Mengukur Kesiapan Guru Sebagai Dasar Pembelajaran Daring. Jurnal Golden Age, 04(2), 362–368.

Trionanda, S. (2021). Analisis kesiapan dan pelaksanaan pembelajaran matematika jarak jauh berdasarkan profil TPACK di SD Katolik Tanjungpinang tahun ajaran 2020 / 2021. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika Dan Pendidikan Matematika, 6, 69–76.

Tsai, C.-C., & Chai, C. S. (2012). The ‘third’-order barrier for technology-integration instruction: Implications for teacher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6). https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.810

Wahyuni, F. T. (2019). Hubungan Antara Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Tpack) Dengan Technology Integration Self Efficacy (Tise) Guru Matematika Di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika (Kudus), 2(2), 109–122. https://doi.org/10.21043/jpm.v2i2.6358

Wang, L., Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2014). Journal of Research on Technology in Education Increasing Preservice Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Technology Integration. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(3), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2004.10782414

Warden, C. A., Yi-Shun, W., Stanworth, J. O., & Chen, J. F. (2020). Millennials’ technology readiness and self-efficacy in online classes. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 00(00), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2020.1798269

Widarjono, A. (2015). Analisis Multivariat Terapan edisi kedua. UPP STIM YKPN.

Wiresti, R. D. (2021). Analisis Dampak Work from Home pada Anak Usia Dini di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Obsesi: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 5(1), 641653. https://doi.org/10.31004/obsesi.v5i1.563

Yildiz Durak, H. (2019). Modeling of relations between K-12 teachers’ TPACK levels and their technology integration self-efficacy, technology literacy levels, attitudes toward technology and usage objectives of social networks. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1619591

Yudha, F., Aziz, A., & Tohir, M. (2021). Pendampingan Siswa Terdampak Covid-19 Melalui Media Animasi Sebagai Inovasi Pembelajaran Online. JMM (Jurnal Masyarakat Mandiri), 5(3), 964–978.

Yurdugül, H., & Demir, Ö. (2017). An investigation of Pre-service Teachers’ Readiness for E-learning at Undergraduate Level Teacher Training Programs: The Case of Hacettepe University. The Case of Hacettepe University.

 

Published
2022-04-30
How to Cite
Warmansyah, J., Komalasari, E., Febriani , E., Gusmiati, & Amalina. (2022). Factors Affecting Teacher Readiness for Online Learning (TROL) in Early Childhood Education: TISE and TPACK. Jurnal Pendidikan Usia Dini, 16(1), 32 - 51. https://doi.org/10.21009/JPUD.161.03